Xylitol poisoning 木糖醇中毒

Xylitol is used as a sugar substitute that is present in a variety of human food products, e.g. toothpastes, chewing gums, candies, some baked goods and peanut butter. The 2 deadly effects of xylitol are hypoglycaemia (low blood sugar) and acute liver failure in dogs. Xylitol is dangerous and can be fatal to dogs at even very low doses. Signs may occur within 30 minutes to 1 hour after xylitol exposure, and include lethargy, weakness, anorexia, ataxia, vomiting, diarrhoea, seizure, collapse and coma.

木糖醇在各種人類食品中用作代糖,例如,牙膏,口香糖,糖果,一些烘焙食品和花生醬。 木糖醇對狗隻做成兩種致命作用:出現低血糖和急性肝衰竭。木糖醇對狗隻來說也是極大的危險品,狗隻只需攝入少量木糖醇已可致命。接觸木糖醇後30分鐘至1小時內可能出現的徵狀,包括嗜睡、虛弱、食慾不振、平衡/協調能力喪失、嘔吐、腹瀉、癲癇發作、休克甚至昏迷。

Xylitol poisoning  木糖醇中毒

Toxic dose

Ingestion of more than 0.075g/kg body weight of xylitol can cause hypoglycaemia in dogs. Dogs ingesting more than 0.5g/kg of xylitol can develop sudden liver failure, which is life-threatening. For example, ingestion of 1-4 pieces of mint flavour candy/gum is enough to cause toxicity in a small to medium-sized dog, but it also depends on the xylitol content of the product, size of the dog, and how much the dog ate.

毒性劑量

以狗隻體重計算,攝入超過每公斤體重0.075克的木糖醇可以導致低血糖症。攝取超過每公斤體重0.5克的木糖醇可以引發急性肝功能衰竭,並可致命。例如,攝取1-4片薄荷味糖果/口香糖足以令中小型狗隻中毒,但也取決於產品的木糖醇含量,狗隻大小以及吃了多少。

What to do next?

If you are sure your dog had ingested xylitol or other toxic products, please bring your dog to your family veterinarian or to a 24-hour Emergency Hospital like VSH Hong Kong as soon as possible. It is always best to induce vomiting under supervision of a veterinarian, and effective, safe emetic medications are available through veterinary clinics.

下一步應該做什麼?

如果你確定狗隻已吞下木糖醇或其他有毒產品,請盡快帶你的狗隻到家庭獸醫或有24小時急症服務的醫院如VSH。最好的處理是獸醫在場監督下注射有效而安全的催嘔劑促使狗隻嘔吐。

Induce vomiting at home (Please contact your veterinarian before you do this at home!)

If you are more than 2 hours away from your nearest vet and you are certain your dog had eaten xylitol, you can try to induce vomiting with 3% hydrogen peroxide solution. More concentrated hydrogen peroxide should be diluted before use, as it can cause ulceration in the GI tract.

The dose is approximately 2.2ml per kg of body weight, e.g. a 5kg dog will need 11ml of 3% hydrogen peroxide.

You can syringe it carefully down to the animal’s throat, or mix it with some honey to make it more palatable. After giving the hydrogen peroxide, you should walk your dog for a few minutes for maximum effect and monitor for any vomiting. You can give the second dose if your dog did not vomit within 15 minutes. However, if your dog still has not vomited after the 2nd dose, you should make your way to the vet as soon as possible.

If your dog had vomited successfully, watch carefully to avoid your dog to re-ingested the vomitus. You should then bring your dog to the vet as your dog may need further diagnostic tests and medications depending on the dose and type of the poisons.

在家中誘發嘔吐(進行前請先諮詢你的獸醫!)

如果你距離你最近的獸醫超過2小時,並且已確定狗隻吃了有毒物質,你可以嘗試用3%的雙氧水誘發嘔吐。高濃度的雙氧水會導致胃腸道潰瘍,所以應該在使用前稀釋至適當濃度。

劑量約為每公斤體重2.2毫升,例如一隻5公斤的狗隻需要約11毫升3%的雙氧水。

你可以小心地直接以針筒餵服,或者將它與一些蜂蜜混合,使其較以入口。餵服雙氧水後,遛狗幾分鐘以獲得最佳效果並觀察嘔吐情況。如果15分鐘內沒有嘔吐,可以再餵服第二劑。 但是在第二次服藥後都還沒有嘔吐的話,便應該盡快去獸醫診所。

如狗隻成功嘔吐,請仔細觀察以避免狗隻再次吞嚥嘔吐物。然後應該帶狗隻到獸醫診所,取決於毒藥的劑量和類型,可能需要進一步的診斷檢測及藥物治療。

**Please do not induce vomiting when:

  1. the caustic substance is a strong acid or alkaline e.g. bleach, that will cause more problem to the oesophagus if it is coming back up
  2. the animal is unsafe to induce vomiting e.g. unconscious, weak to swallow, seizure, lethargic..etc
  3. the animal had already vomited or when the substance had been ingested a long time ago (>4 hours), as further vomiting may not help.

Ref:https://www.aspca.org/pet-care/animal-poison-control

**請勿在下列情況下誘發嘔吐:

1.如果該動物吞下強酸性或鹼性的苛性物質,例如 漂白劑,嘔吐可能會對食道做成更多的問題

2.如果該動物並不適合誘發嘔吐,例如 昏迷,無力吞嚥,抽搐,軟弱無力等

3.如果該動物已經嘔吐或者攝入了該物質已經有一段時間(>4小時),進一步的誘發嘔吐未必有用。

If your dog started to show clinical signs e.g. lethargy, weakness, seizure or even collapse, please bring your dog to your nearest veterinarian immediately. It is not advisable to induce vomiting at home in a weak animal, as it may cause more harm to the animal.

如果您的狗隻開始出現明顯症狀,例如軟弱無力,虛弱,抽搐甚至休克,請立即帶您的狗隻到就近的獸醫診所。不建議主人為虛弱的動物在家中誘發嘔吐,因為可能會對動物造成更多傷害。

How to keep your dogs safe?

  • Identify the poisons around your house and keep them away from your pets.
    1. Common food poisons include chocolate, onions, grapes, tea leaves or caffeine-containing products, alcohol, avocado, macadamia nuts, xylitol, and mushrooms.
    2. Common household poisons include bleach, essential oils, toilet cleaning tablets, anti-freeze, vinegar, cigarettes and human medications e.g. aspirin, ibuprofen, topical creams, and mosquito repellent.
    3. Call your veterinarian, or bring to your dog to the vet if you suspect poisoning. Remember to bring along the wrappers or package boxes of the product for the vet to evaluate the toxic ingredients.

如何確保狗隻安全?

1)確保你的寵物遠離家居的毒藥。

a)常見的食物中毒包括朱古力,洋蔥,葡萄,茶葉或含咖啡因的產品,酒精,牛油果,澳洲堅果,木糖醇,菌類食品等。

b)日常生活中的毒物包括漂白劑,精油,潔廁藥片,防凍劑,醋,香煙和人類藥物,例如 阿司匹靈,布洛芬消炎止痛藥,外用乳膏,驅蚊劑等。

c)如果懷疑中毒,請帶狗隻去看獸醫。 並請記得攜帶產品的包裝盒供獸醫評估有毒成分。

  • Identify the poisons in the environment and watch out for anything your dog had picked up.
    1. Before entering a park, watch out for any signs or notices about pesticides or fertilizers used in the park.
    2. If your dog had picked up something, safely remove it from the mouth if the dog allows you to do so (don’t get bitten!). If your dog had ingested something suspicious, contact your family vet as soon as possible and monitor your dog for signs of weakness, vomiting, diarrhoea and anorexia.
    3. Keeping your dog on a leash when go for walks will let you have a better control and supervision on your dog. The length of the leash should be adjusted to keep your dog within a few steps around you.

2)確保狗隻不會在周圍環境中撿起毒物。

a)在進入公園之前,注意有關公園內使用的農藥或肥料的告示。

b)如果你的狗隻已經撿起東西,請在狗隻允許的情況下,安全地將它從嘴裡取出(注意不要被咬傷!)。 如果已經吞下可疑的東西,請盡快聯絡家庭獸醫,並觀察狗隻有否出現無力,嘔吐,腹瀉和食慾不振的跡象。

c)散步時以狗帶牽引狗隻可以讓你更容易控制和觀察狗隻的活動。 調整狗帶的長度,以保持你與狗隻之間距離幾步之內。

  • Know your nearest veterinary clinic!
    1. Keep a note of the addresses and phone numbers of the vet clinics around you, so you can contact them when necessary.
    2. Keep a record of the brief medical history and medications of your pets, so the vet can review them immediately on your arrival.

3)了解離家最近的獸醫診所

a)記下附近診所的地址和電話號碼,以便在必要時聯絡他們。

b)為寵物的醫療及藥物記錄存檔,以便獸醫能儘快了解狗隻的健康狀況。

Emergency? We can help!

The Emergency and Critical Care team at VSH Hong Kong is on site 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. The patients in our ICU are never left unattended. You can rest assured that as your pet recovers, he or she will be cared for at all times.

Our emergency doctors and nursing staff always work together with our specialists, and with both you and your family veterinarian, to provide the comprehensive care your pet needs.

Our team is here, day or night, including holidays and weekends. If your dog or cat is sick or injured, we understand that this may be a stressful and difficult time for you. We are fully-equipped to handle even the most complicated medical and surgical emergencies. We offer the most current technological services in a calm, relaxing environment to help to minimize anxiety in our patients and their families.

遇到緊急情況?我們會為您伸出援手!

我們的緊急及重症護理團隊24小時侯命。 您可以放心將您的寵物交給我們,寵物在本院的深切治療部會得到細心的呵護,全面的照顧及護理。

本院的急症醫生及護理人員會與專科醫生,您及您的家庭獸醫共同合作,為您的寵物提供全面的護理。

我們的團隊不分晝夜提供服務,包括公眾假期及週末。如果您的貓狗生病或受傷,我們理解這可能是您最緊張和困難的時候。本院設施齊備,可以處理最複雜的醫療及外科緊急程序。我們在寧靜、輕鬆的環境提供最先進的技術與服務,儘量減少寵物及其家屬的焦慮。

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Location

Veterinary Specialty Hospital of Hong Kong
1/F Lucky Centre,
165-171 Wan Chai Road,
Wan Chai, Hong Kong.

 

EMERGENCY TEL: +852 2408 2588

Getting There

Below are some of the bus routes that have stops close by to VSH:

  • New World Bus:  15, 23, 66, 101
  • City Bus:  1, 5X, 6, 10, 75, 101, 111, 115, 182, 789

MTR : VSH is just 5 minutes walk from WAN CHAI MTR EXIT A3. When you walk out of exit A3, cross the pedestrian crossing then turn left. Walk along Johnston Road until you reach Wan Chai Road. Continue along Wan Chai Road until you reach Fubon Bank. We are right next to it.